Reform and Rebellion Life in the Victorian Era

Feelings of Nationalism in the Canadas :

French felt English tried to outnumber them through immigration (Eastern Townships).The Chateau Clique had most of the political power (Brewers and Bankers).Three main problems.Lack of political power, unequal taxation, and discrimination.British instated anti-French Governor James Craig.Closed dissenting newspapers and arrested those who criticized the government.

The Colonial Government

Gov’t of Upper and Lower Canada est. by Constitutional Act of 1791.Supposed to be democratic and it was except.Governor  had a veto ability to override the public’s decisions.The upper classes family Compact wanted money spent on canals and improving business.The lower classes wanted roads, schools and land reform.This led to frustration and calls for reform.

The Chateau Clique

Wealthy land orders for lower Canada Quebec. But yet it is dominated by wealthy English business men. Molsen Keith.

The Family

Weathly business located in upper Canada Ontario makes the laws for the Oligarky. They were not elected. At that time both the groups made the laws and built what they needed to build.

Rebellions of 1837 in Upper and Lower Canada

Punishment: the death penalty was handed out for insurrection. The leaders where publicly hanged. Others were transported to Bermuda for seven years. But most of the voyagers died on the trip. Many of the French Canadians had their land and crops burned.

The Durham Report

John Lambton (Earl of Durham) was appointed governor in Chief of the Canadas. He arrived in 1838. He also did join the family compact or the Clique. Also patched and made things up with the USA. Pardoned many rebels, but sometimes gets overturned by the more powerful groups.

The Durham Report Con’t:

He recommended the colonies he joined and given responsible government. He also recommendation that all of the British Republic. North America be joined in the future. The only people who are against this are the French Canadians.

The 1841 Act of Union

The government changed as a result of the recommendations. The Executive council would become the Cabinet. His proposal became the basis of the modern government.

Victorian culture: Fashion and Décor

Clothing indicated social status. Women wore long dresses or aprons. wore hats and ties.Wealthy men wore long jackets with high stiff collars. Women wore long dresses of the finest cloth.Parosols protected their skin from the sun.Large houses were built for large families.Heated with wood or coal fireplaces in most rooms.Knick knacks often made rooms look cluttered.

Victorian Culture: Leisure

Lots of activities that the men liked to do was to go to bars and drink and chat and shoot pool and toss darts.

Victorian Culture: Travel

Travel changed with the emergence of trains.Steamships made the journey across the Atlantic much shorter.Improved infrastructure also helped. People were scared about trains because they thought that since the trains where going so fast that the air would get sucked out of the trains and you could not breathe.

The Rise of Newspapers

Canada’s first newspaper was the Halifax Gazette in 1752.Dailies increased in the 1800s.By 1873 there are 47 dailies in Canada.No sports sections, no comics, advice columns, horoscopes.The were one of the only sources of news from abroad.Privacy was not respected. First use of mass communication in history.

YouTube Video:

Website Link:

political Cartoon:

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Fur Tade

Hudson Bay Company

HBC formed in 1670 as a private British Company. Hed a monopoly in land that was called Rupert’s land. The company used natives to bring furs to the forts and posts near the bay. They also have exclusive rights to land of all rivers that flowed into the Hudson Bay Basin.

The Northwest Company

formed in 1783 by independent fur traders from Quebec. They went to the natives and ‘wintered’ with them trading for furs. Began ,major rivalry with HBC.

James Cook

Sailed as an explorer for the British and made 3 voyages. Also James Cook was the first person to discover Vancouver Island. He explored most of the pacific in Australia and New Zealand. He was the first person to sail the closest to the South Pole. He searched for the Northwest Passage for a faster way to Asia.

George Vancouver

originally a midshipmen on Cooks voyages. He Captained his own voyages to Pacific coast of North America in 1791.He fur trade on the west coast to British claimed land for Britain. First to circumnavigate Vancouver Island.

Alexander Mackenzie

He mapped the Mackenzie river and travelled with native guides.  He is known for his overland crossing of Canada to reach the Pacific Ocean in 1793. This was the first east to west crossing of North America north of Mexico and predated the Lewis and Clark expedition by 10 years.

Simon Fraser

Became a partner in the NWC. He built forts including Fort Macleod,Fort St. James Fort Frasie,Fort George. He was a fur trader and an explorer who charted much of what is now the Canadian province of BC . Fraser was employed by the Montreal based North West Company. By 1805, he had been put in charge of all the company’s operations west of the Rockies. He was responsible for building that area’s first trading posts, and, in 1808, he explored what is now known as the Fraser River.

David Thompson

Map maker and trader for NWC. First to explore the Columbia River. Travelled 500000km in all. Had a metis wife. Explored the Rocky Mts. built trading posts on the Columbia river. When he reached the mouth of the Columbia he found Americans already there.

Immigation In The 1830’s

Waves of immigrants arrived at the end of the War. Most settled in the Eastern Townships.  Most people were from Europe or the USA. Most of the people who moved to Canada because they wanted to say  loyalists.

Coffin Ships

Many poor people were forced into the steerage on the ship. About half of all immigrants who made the journey died or had a sickness. The sickness was called cholera.

Tenant Farmers

Many of the immigrants were Scottish or  Irish. About half of the Irish people died or left to Canada. This was because of the Irish Potato famine.


 Fun Facts and Videos

Captain James Cook was the first captain of a ship to prevent the outbreak of scurvy by serving his crew citrus fruit like limes.


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Canada has a wide variety of climates because:
-it extends over a vast distance from north to south
-there is a wide variety of elevations
-coastal regions vary greatly from inland regions
-wind and pressure systems move weather from one  region to another

Climate : long-term weather pattern

Weather: the day-to-day conditions of
the atmosphere ex. temperature, precipitation

Factors that affect climate


Ocean currents

Winds and air masses



Nearness to water

1)     Latitude

the further you are from the equator, the cooler it will be because:
a) the rays of the sun are more direct at the equator  than they are at the Arctic Circle where they
are more oblique.
b) the closer to the poles, the rays must pass through the
atmosphere, which absorbs lots  energy.

Relief & Elevation – relief means the differences in elevation on the Earth’s surface. Mountains cause air masses to rise which causes precipitation

Elevation  the higher up a mountain
one goes, the cooler it gets.
b) the wet cooling rate    this occurs when there is condensation
Why does this occur? Because as the air rises in
altitude it expands and the molecules are further apart.

Continental  and Maritime Climates

a) continental   an area far from bodies of water
the temperature range is
large because there is no water nearby to  keep  it in balance
b) maritime  near a large body of
It has a lower temperature range and more precipitation

3)   Nearness to water 

as air passes over water it picks up moisture. When this air reaches
the coast it is forced over mountains and precipitation occurs.

4)   Ocean currents
water warms up slower and cools down slower than land does
this has a moderating effect on land that touches the ocean because as the wind passes over the water it is warmed up and moderates the temperature on land.

additional info about ocean currents:

Air masses  a large volume of air that
has the same characteristics. An air mass coming in over water will be moist and will cause precipitation.

3)    Winds and pressure systems
air pressure   air has weight and exerts pressure below it.
The higher the elevation is, the lower the air pressure will be Winds   wind is the movement of air across the earth’s
surface and is created by differences in air pressure
Prevailing winds   around the world there are established areas
of high and low pressure zones known as belts
Winds that form in the Arctic will be cold and dry
Whereas ones from the Gulf of Mexico will be warm and moist.
A polar front is the
boundary between polar air and tropical air
precipitation is based on air cooling and rising, and then water vapor condenses and evaporates.

The Jet Stream  is a current of fast-flowing (300 to 500
km/hr) air that flows from west to east.


Arctic extreme temperature and no trees because the roots can’t dig into the frozen ground Taiga Still very cold Barren arctic tree line muscade soil and continental climate Cordilleran Cold winters mild summers. Lots of precipitation Coniferous forests if below tree line. Maritime Oceanic Climate.  Boreal Continental climate lower precipitation Praire  Continental climate little precipitation. Southeastern  cool winters warm summers


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INDUSTRY by: Stephen Wyatt Primary Extractive (5%) – are industries that take raw materials from the ground some examples fishing, farming. Called primary because the companies are using of raw materials. These resources can’t be sustainable for infinite periods of time. Manufacturing Secondary (22%)­ … Continue reading

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