Feelings of Nationalism in the Canadas :
French felt English tried to outnumber them through immigration (Eastern Townships).The Chateau Clique had most of the political power (Brewers and Bankers).Three main problems.Lack of political power, unequal taxation, and discrimination.British instated anti-French Governor James Craig.Closed dissenting newspapers and arrested those who criticized the government.
The Colonial Government
Gov’t of Upper and Lower Canada est. by Constitutional Act of 1791.Supposed to be democratic and it was except.Governor had a veto ability to override the public’s decisions.The upper classes family Compact wanted money spent on canals and improving business.The lower classes wanted roads, schools and land reform.This led to frustration and calls for reform.
The Chateau Clique
Wealthy land orders for lower Canada Quebec. But yet it is dominated by wealthy English business men. Molsen Keith.
Weathly business located in upper Canada Ontario makes the laws for the Oligarky. They were not elected. At that time both the groups made the laws and built what they needed to build.
Rebellions of 1837 in Upper and Lower Canada
Punishment: the death penalty was handed out for insurrection. The leaders where publicly hanged. Others were transported to Bermuda for seven years. But most of the voyagers died on the trip. Many of the French Canadians had their land and crops burned.
The Durham Report
John Lambton (Earl of Durham) was appointed governor in Chief of the Canadas. He arrived in 1838. He also did join the family compact or the Clique. Also patched and made things up with the USA. Pardoned many rebels, but sometimes gets overturned by the more powerful groups.
The Durham Report Con’t:
He recommended the colonies he joined and given responsible government. He also recommendation that all of the British Republic. North America be joined in the future. The only people who are against this are the French Canadians.
The 1841 Act of Union
The government changed as a result of the recommendations. The Executive council would become the Cabinet. His proposal became the basis of the modern government.
Victorian culture: Fashion and Décor
Clothing indicated social status. Women wore long dresses or aprons. wore hats and ties.Wealthy men wore long jackets with high stiff collars. Women wore long dresses of the finest cloth.Parosols protected their skin from the sun.Large houses were built for large families.Heated with wood or coal fireplaces in most rooms.Knick knacks often made rooms look cluttered.
Victorian Culture: Leisure
Lots of activities that the men liked to do was to go to bars and drink and chat and shoot pool and toss darts.
Victorian Culture: Travel
Travel changed with the emergence of trains.Steamships made the journey across the Atlantic much shorter.Improved infrastructure also helped. People were scared about trains because they thought that since the trains where going so fast that the air would get sucked out of the trains and you could not breathe.
The Rise of Newspapers
Canada’s first newspaper was the Halifax Gazette in 1752.Dailies increased in the 1800s.By 1873 there are 47 dailies in Canada.No sports sections, no comics, advice columns, horoscopes.The were one of the only sources of news from abroad.Privacy was not respected. First use of mass communication in history.
Website Link: http://www.victoriaspast.com/FrontPorch/victorianera.htm